Getting into git & github - a basic dev workflow
The idea behind GIT & github
While not a necessity, I strongly recommend using GIT and github to track your version history. GIT is a free version control system. This means you can incrementally save the changes you to a document. The benefit: highly precise version control and minimal size. GitHub is an only platform to remotely store your projects. You can use GIT only locally, but a remote storage has he benefit of being available from everywhere, if you wipe your computer, your projects are safe and sound in the cloud. Github allows for unlimited public projects, you only have to pay if you want to have private projects.
Get GIT up an running
I am using a mac, you should have git preinstalled in your mac. You can test this by running
git --version from the Terminal.app. You might have to accept and install the xCode command line tools, this is fine, just do it. If you do not want to have control over your git version, your are done! Go to the next section.
However I personally like to be in control of which GIT version I am running, because sometimes you want a feature, but apple does not update git very frequently. To install GIT on your mac, the easiest way is using Homebrew, just run the following command in your terminal to install homebrew to your mac.
ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Homebrew/install/master/install)"
To install GIT using homebrew, run the following command in your terminal.
brew install git
If you run
git --version on your terminal you still get your old GIT version, because you need to tell your mac where to find the correct GIT version before it will be used.
You need to edit or create your
.bash_profile file and add
/usr/local/bin to the
# try to open the .bash_profile open ~/.bash_profile # if you have no bash_profile yet, you will get the following message # > The file /Users/yourUserName/.bash_profile does not exist. # Run this command to create the file touch ~/.bash_profile # now open it open ~/.bash_profile
.bash_profile add (or edit) the
export PATH line. The
PATH variable is basically a line of paths, separated by colons
: which at least to me is pretty confusing, but thats the way it works. The importance is from left to right, so now we first look inside
/usr/local/bin before we look anywhere else.
# add this to your .bash_profile file export PATH="/usr/local/bin:$PATH"
After closing and reopening your command line,
which git should show the correct path
git --version should show the correct version.
Set up your GIT user
Once you have GIT ready, add your global GIT email and username, which will be used to track which changes you committed. In your terminal enter the following to configure your GIT. By using the
--global flag the settings are used for all your projects.
git config --global user.name "YOUR NAME" git config --global user.email "YOUR EMAIL ADDRESS"
You can view the settings by typing the following into your terminal. To change it, just use the command from above.
git config --global --get user.name git config --global --get user.email
Getting started with github
First, of course, if you want to use github.com you need to sign up, go for a free account if you have no reason not to, you can always upgrade.
The easiest way to connect to github is by using HTTPS, while ssh is possible, it is more complicated. To do this, first we need to create a new project, in the GIT world projects are called repositories or just repos. Do this by clicking the plus symbol in the top right corner and selecting new repository from the dropdown.
Now you can clone down the repo, the url will be displayed on the new repository page. Make sure you grab the HTTPS url. This page also has a quick tutorial on how to create a new repo using the terminal / command line.
# make sure you move to your code folder, however you named it cd ~/Code # clone the repo, you can provide the folder name as an argument git clone https://github.com/username/repository.git name-of-the-new-folder
Now your repository is ready to use. Basic GIT usage is pretty simple...
Now that we have GIT set up and github connected, we can dive into some git basics. First, whenever you want to know how your repository is doing, you can just type
git status. At the moment there is nothing in our repo, so lets create a file to commit to our GIT. Move to your terminal app and enter the following.
# the .gitignore file, describes which files are supposed to be ignored touch .gitignore # use git add [filename] to add a file to be tracked by your GIT # untracked files will be listed as untracked, but changes can not be saved / restored git add .gitignore # add a commit message, so you will know what you were about, later on git commit -m 'adding an empty gitignore file' # get the status of your repo git status # you should see this, it means that all local changes are committed to your version history locally > On branch master > Your branch is ahead of 'origin/master' by 1 commit. > (use "git push" to publish your local commits) > nothing to commit, working directory clean
Since you are working with a repo on github, you most likely want to store your version history in the cloud. Since your repository is already connected to github, this is as simple as a
# upload your committed changes to your remote (online) repository git push # if you never pushed to github before you will be asked for your github username & password # the password will not be displayed # you should see something similar to this > Counting objects: 1, done. > Delta compression using up to 8 threads. > Compressing objects: 100% (1/1), done. > Writing objects: 100% (1/1), 263 bytes | 0 bytes/s, done. > Total 1 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0) > To https://github.com/username/repository.git 6d2c3d1..4784692 master -> master
This is it, if you look at your repository on github you will see the
.gitignore file is now present. So you are done. Whenever you feel you want to save your changes, you just need to
git add the files you want to save and
git commit the changes, including a message that will make it possible for you to remember what you changed / added. Lets try this out by editing and committing the
.gitignore file, if you did not enable invisible files to be visible yet, just open it via the terminal.
Now just add all files and directories you do NOT want to be tracked. One per line. Save and move back to the terminal app.
Before we commit the changes, lets quickly add an empty
readme.md file. This will show up on your repositories homepage on github.
# add an empty readme file touch readme.md # check the status of the git repository git status # you should see something like > On branch master > Your branch is up-to-date with 'origin/master'. > Changes not staged for commit: > (use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed) > (use "git checkout -- <file>..." to discard changes in working directory) > > modified: .gitignore > > Untracked files: > (use "git add <file>..." to include in what will be committed) > > readme.md
Now we need to repeat what we did before: add – commit – push. There is a way to add all files to your commit,
git add --all, but beware, because you can easily add unwanted files to your repository. If in doubt, use
git add filename.
# you can add multiple files at once by separating them with a space git add .gitignore readme.md # commit files & add a commit message git commit -m 'update gitignore and add empty readme.md' # push to remote git push
Store your password
Because it is pretty annoying to enter your username and password every time you want to push something to github, there is a tool to deal with it. Git has a way of storing your credentials in the OSX keychain, so that you do not have to enter them manually.
If you installed git via homebrew it should already be installed, you can test it by entering the following command into the terminal.
git credential-osxkeychain # output should be > Usage: git credential-osxkeychain <get|store|erase> # if you get the following it is not installed > git: 'credential-osxkeychain' is not a git command. See 'git --help'.
git credential-osxkeychain use the following curl command in your terminal. Afterwards you will need to adjust the permissions, move the file to the correct directory (same as your git installation) and set git to always use the helper.
curl -s -O https://github-media-downloads.s3.amazonaws.com/osx/git-credential-osxkeychain # adjust permissions chmod u+x git-credential-osxkeychain # move the git credential-osxkeychain to the path where git is installed sudo mv git-credential-osxkeychain "$(dirname $(which git))/git-credential-osxkeychain" # it will as for your password Password: [enter your password] # set git to use the osxkeychain credential helper git config --global credential.helper osxkeychain
Done. Okay, this was a little more work, but you only need to do it once. The next time you push, git will as you for the username and password and to allow the keychain to save those. Afterwards, no password ever again.
GIT is easy
So this it all you need for now. There is a lot more you can go with GIT and I will be writing some more articles about it. But if you understand the add – commit – push method you are good smaller projects, keep using it and onceit'ssecond nature, learning new things you can do with GIT will be easy.